1 common.inc url($path = NULL, array $options = array())

Generates an internal or external URL.

When creating links in modules, consider whether l() could be a better alternative than url().

Parameters

$path: (optional) The internal path or external URL being linked to, such as "node/34" or "http://example.com/foo". The default value is equivalent to passing in '<front>'. A few notes:

  • If you provide a full URL, it will be considered an external URL.
  • If you provide only the path (e.g. "node/34"), it will be considered an internal link. In this case, it should be a system URL, and it will be replaced with the alias, if one exists. Additional query arguments for internal paths must be supplied in $options['query'], not included in $path.
  • If you provide an internal path and $options['alias'] is set to TRUE, the path is assumed already to be the correct path alias, and the alias is not looked up.
  • The special string '<front>' generates a link to the site's base URL.
  • If your external URL contains a query (e.g. http://example.com/foo?a=b), then you can either URL encode the query keys and values yourself and include them in $path, or use $options['query'] to let this function URL encode them.

$options: (optional) An associative array of additional options, with the following elements:

  • 'query': An array of query key/value-pairs (without any URL-encoding) to append to the URL.
  • 'fragment': A fragment identifier (named anchor) to append to the URL. Do not include the leading '#' character.
  • 'absolute': Defaults to FALSE. Whether to force the output to be an absolute link (beginning with http:). Useful for links that will be displayed outside the site, such as in an RSS feed.
  • 'alias': Defaults to FALSE. Whether the given path is a URL alias already.
  • 'external': Whether the given path is an external URL.
  • 'language': An optional language object. If the path being linked to is internal to the site, $options['language'] is used to look up the alias for the URL. If $options['language'] is omitted, the global $language_url will be used.
  • 'clean': Force the enabling or disabling of the "Clean URLs" option for the returned URL. If omitted, the site-wide setting will be used.
  • 'https': Whether this URL should point to a secure location. If not defined, the current scheme is used, so the user stays on HTTP or HTTPS respectively. TRUE enforces HTTPS and FALSE enforces HTTP, but HTTPS can only be enforced when the variable 'https' is set to TRUE.
  • 'base_url': Only used internally, to modify the base URL when a language dependent URL requires so.
  • 'prefix': Only used internally, to modify the path when a language dependent URL requires so.
  • 'script': The script filename in Backdrop's root directory to use when clean URLs are disabled, such as 'index.php'. Defaults to an empty string, as most modern web servers automatically find 'index.php'. If clean URLs are disabled, the value of $path is appended as query parameter 'q' to $options['script'] in the returned URL. When deploying Backdrop on a web server that cannot be configured to automatically find index.php, then hook_url_outbound_alter() can be implemented to force this value to 'index.php'.
  • 'entity_type': The entity type of the object that called url(). Only set if url() is invoked by entity_uri().
  • 'entity': The entity object (such as a node) for which the URL is being generated. Only set if url() is invoked by entity_uri().

Return value

A string containing a URL to the given path.

File

core/includes/common.inc, line 2494
Common functions that many Backdrop modules will need to reference.

Code

function url($path = NULL, array $options = array()) {
  // Merge in defaults.
  $options += array(
    'fragment' => '',
    'query' => array(),
    'absolute' => FALSE,
    'alias' => FALSE,
    'prefix' => ''
  );

  // Determine whether this is an external link, but ensure that the current
  // path is always treated as internal by default (to prevent external link
  // injection vulnerabilities).
  if (!isset($options['external'])) {
    $options['external'] = ($path === $_GET['q']) ? FALSE : url_is_external($path);
  }

  // Preserve the original path before altering or aliasing.
  $original_path = $path;

  // Allow other modules to alter the outbound URL and options.
  backdrop_alter('url_outbound', $path, $options, $original_path);

  if (isset($options['fragment']) && $options['fragment'] !== '') {
    $options['fragment'] = '#' . $options['fragment'];
  }

  if ($options['external']) {
    // Split off the fragment.
    if (strpos($path, '#') !== FALSE) {
      list($path, $old_fragment) = explode('#', $path, 2);
      // If $options contains no fragment, take it over from the path.
      if (isset($old_fragment) && !$options['fragment']) {
        $options['fragment'] = '#' . $old_fragment;
      }
    }
    // Append the query.
    if ($options['query']) {
      $path .= (strpos($path, '?') !== FALSE ? '&' : '?') . backdrop_http_build_query($options['query']);
    }
    if (isset($options['https']) && settings_get('https', FALSE)) {
      if ($options['https'] === TRUE) {
        $path = str_replace('http://', 'https://', $path);
      }
      elseif ($options['https'] === FALSE) {
        $path = str_replace('https://', 'http://', $path);
      }
    }
    // Reassemble.
    return $path . $options['fragment'];
  }

  // Strip leading slashes from internal paths to prevent them becoming external
  // URLs without protocol. /example.com should not be turned into
  // //example.com.
  $path = ltrim($path, '/');

  global $base_url, $base_secure_url, $base_insecure_url;

  // The base_url might be rewritten from the language rewrite in domain mode.
  if (!isset($options['base_url'])) {
    if (isset($options['https']) && settings_get('https', FALSE)) {
      if ($options['https'] === TRUE) {
        $options['base_url'] = $base_secure_url;
        $options['absolute'] = TRUE;
      }
      elseif ($options['https'] === FALSE) {
        $options['base_url'] = $base_insecure_url;
        $options['absolute'] = TRUE;
      }
    }
    else {
      $options['base_url'] = $base_url;
    }
  }

  // The special path '<front>' links to the default front page.
  if ($path == '<front>') {
    $path = '';
  }
  elseif (!empty($path) && !$options['alias']) {
    $langcode = isset($options['language']) && isset($options['language']->langcode) ? $options['language']->langcode : '';
    $alias = backdrop_get_path_alias($original_path, $langcode);
    if ($alias != $original_path) {
      // Strip leading slashes from internal path aliases to prevent them
      // becoming external URLs without protocol. /example.com should not be
      // turned into //example.com.
      $path = ltrim($alias, '/');
    }
  }

  $base = $options['absolute'] ? $options['base_url'] . '/' : base_path();
  $prefix = empty($path) ? rtrim($options['prefix'], '/') : $options['prefix'];

  // Cache the clean URLs setting, as url() is called very frequently.
  static $backdrop_static_fast;
  if (!isset($backdrop_static_fast)) {
    $backdrop_static_fast['clean_urls_enabled'] = &backdrop_static(__FUNCTION__);
  }
  $clean_urls_enabled = &$backdrop_static_fast['clean_urls_enabled'];
  if (!isset($clean_urls_enabled)) {
    try {
      $clean_urls_enabled = config_get('system.core', 'clean_url') ? TRUE : FALSE;
    }
    catch (ConfigException $e) {
      $clean_urls_enabled = FALSE;
    }
  }

  if (isset($options['clean'])) {
    $clean_url = $options['clean'];
  }
  else {
    $clean_url = $clean_urls_enabled;
  }

  // With Clean URLs.
  if (!empty($clean_url)) {
    $path = backdrop_encode_path($prefix . $path);
    if ($options['query']) {
      return $base . $path . '?' . backdrop_http_build_query($options['query']) . $options['fragment'];
    }
    else {
      return $base . $path . $options['fragment'];
    }
  }
  // Without Clean URLs.
  else {
    $path = $prefix . $path;
    $query = array();
    if (!empty($path)) {
      $query['q'] = $path;
    }
    if ($options['query']) {
      // We do not use array_merge() here to prevent overriding $path via query
      // parameters.
      $query += $options['query'];
    }
    $query = $query ? ('?' . backdrop_http_build_query($query)) : '';
    $script = isset($options['script']) ? $options['script'] : '';
    return $base . $script . $query . $options['fragment'];
  }
}